A dough always starts with flour and water, to which a leavening agent, salt, fat, sugar, eggs, or milk are added. The difference between a dough and a batter is that a dough contains more flour than water, making it solid enough to work with your hands. Mixing these two main ingredients yields a solid mass whose texture changes during the kneading process: it becomes more elastic, for example. The texture comprises three basic elements: water, protein (glutens), and starch granules. The texture of dough is always temporary: heat, for example, transforms it instantly.
Equipment required: mixing bowl, scales
Can be used for: pâte à foncer, shortcrust pastry, bread, puff pastry